IAS Syllabus

IAS Prelims Syllabus

  • Current Events of National and International Importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • Comprehension; Interpersonal Skills including Communication Skills.
  • Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability.
  • Decision Making and Problem Solving.
  • General Mental Ability.
  • Basic Numeracy (Numbers and their Relations, Orders of Magnitude, etc.) (Class X level).
  • Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. — Class X level).
  • Biotechnology – Genetic Engineering – Processes and Applications
  • Atomic Theory – Structure of an Atom

IAS Mains Syllabus

The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English. The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Précis Writing.
  • Usage and Vocabulary.
  • Short Essays.

The papers will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in this paper will not be counted for ranking. The candidates will have to answer the Indian Language paper in the respective language only (except where translation is involved).

The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in the Indian language concerned. The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Précis Writing.
  • Usage and Vocabulary.
  • Short Essays.
  • Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.

The papers will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in this paper will not be counted for ranking. The candidates will have to answer the English Language paper in English only.

Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely.

Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.
  • History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of Women and Women’s Organization, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty and Developmental issues, Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of Globalization on Indian society.
  • Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism.
  • Salient features of World’s Physical Geography.
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
  • Indian Constitution—Historical Underpinnings, Evolution, Features, Amendments, Significant Provisions and Basic Structure.
  • Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure, Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels and Challenges Therein.
  • Separation of Powers between various organs Dispute Redressal Mechanisms and Institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with that of Other Countries.
  • Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these.
  • Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; Pressure Groups and Formal/Informal Associations and their Role in the Polity.
  • Salient Features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional Posts, Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies.
  • Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.
    Development Processes and the Development Industry — the Role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes; Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections.
  • Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger.
  • Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability, E-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; Citizens Charters, Transparency & Accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of Civil Services in a Democracy.
  • India and its Neighborhood- Relations.
  • Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
  • Land Reforms in India.
  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment Models.
  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Disaster and Disaster Management.
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions; Dimensions of Ethics; Ethics – in Private and Public Relationships. Human Values – Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers and Administrators; Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.
  • Attitude: Content, Structure, Function; its Influence and Relation with Thought and Behaviour; Moral and Political Attitudes; Social Influence and Persuasion.
  • Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service, Integrity, Impartiality and Non-partisanship, Objectivity, Dedication to Public Service, Empathy, Tolerance and Compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional Intelligence-Concepts, and their Utilities and Application in Administration and Governance.
  • Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and World.
  • Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration: Status and Problems; Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions; Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience as Sources of Ethical Guidance; Accountability and Ethical Governance; Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance; Ethical Issues in International Relations and Funding; Corporate Governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of Public Service; Philosophical Basis of Governance and Probity; Information Sharing and Transparency in Government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work Culture, Quality of Service Delivery, Utilization of Public Funds, Challenges of Corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Optional Subjects

Paper I – Fundamentals of Sociology
Sociology: The Discipline
  • Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
  • Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
  • Sociology and common sense.
Sociology as a Science
  • Science, scientific method and critique.
  • Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  • Positivism and its critique.
  • Fact value and objectivity.
  •  Non-positivist methodologies
Research Methods and Analysis
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • Techniques of data collection.
  • Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
Sociological Thinkers
  • Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  • Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  • Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  • Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
  • Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
  • Mead – Self and identity.
Stratification and Mobility
  • Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
  • Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  • Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  • Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
Works and Economic Life
  • Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
  • Formal and informal organization of work.
  • Labour and society.
Politics and Society
  • Sociological theories of power.
  • Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
  • Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
  • Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
Religion and Society
  • Sociological theories of religion.
  • Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
  • Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamen talism.
Systems of Kinship
  • Family, household, marriage.
  • Types and forms of family.
  • Lineage and descent.
  • Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  • Contemporary trends.
Social Change in Modern Society
  • Sociological theories of social change.
  • Development and dependency.
  • Agents of social change.
  • Education and social change.
  • Science, technology and social change.
Paper II – Fundamentals of Sociology
Introducing Indian Society
  • Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society: Indology (G.S. Ghure); Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas); Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
  • Impact of colonial rule on Indian society: Social background of Indian nationalism; Modernization of Indian tradition; Protests and movements during the colonial period; Social reforms
Social Structure
  • Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: The idea of Indian village and village studies; Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
  • Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille; Features of caste system; Untouchability-forms and perspectives
  • Tribal Communities in India: Definitional problems; Geographical spread; Colonial policies and tribes; Issues of integration and autonomy.
  • Social Classes in India: Agrarian class structure; Industrial class structure; Middle classes in India.
  • Systems of Kinship in India: Lineage and descent in India; Types of kinship systems; Family and marriage in India; Household dimensions of the family; Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
  • Religion and Society : Religious communities in India; Problems of religious minorities.
Social Changes in India
  • Visions of Social Change in India: Idea of development planning and mixed economy; Constitution, law and social change; Education and social change.
  • Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India: Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes; Green revolution and social change; Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture; Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
  • Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: Evolution of modern industry in India; Growth of urban settlements in India; Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization; Informal sector, child labour; Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
  • Politics and Society: Nation, democracy and citizenship; Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite; Regionalism and decentralization of power; Secularization.
  • Social Movements in Modern India: Peasants and farmers movements; Women’s movement; Backward classes & Dalit movements; Environmental movements; Ethnicity and Identity movements.
  • Population Dynamics: Population size, growth, composition and distribution; Components of population growth: birth, death, migration; Population Policy and family planning; Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
  • Challenges of Social Transformation: Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability; Poverty, deprivation and inequalities; Violence against women; Caste conflicts; Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism; Illiteracy and disparities in education.
Paper – I International Relations
Political Theory and Indian Politics
  • Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
  • Theories of state: Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.
  • Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.
  • Equality: Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
  • Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.
  • Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.
  • Concept of power: hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
  • Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.
  • Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.
  • Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.
Indian Government and Politics
  • Indian Nationalism: Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements; Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.
  • Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.
  • Salient Features of the Indian Constitution : The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.
  • Principal Organs of the Union Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court; Principal Organs of the State Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.
  • Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
  • Statutory Institutions/Commissions : Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.
  • Federalism : Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
  • Planning and Economic development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.
  • Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
  • Party System : National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.
  • Social Movement : Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.
Paper – II International Relations
Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics
  • Comparative Politics : Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.
  • State in Comparative Perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.
  • Politics of Representation and Participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
  • Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies.
  • Approaches to the Study of International Relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
  • Key Concepts in International Relations : National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
  • Changing International Political Order: Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat; Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements; Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
  • Evolution of the International Economic System : From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
  • United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
  • Regionalisation of World Politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.
  • Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice terrorism, nuclear proliferation.
Indian and the World
  • Indian Foreign Policy : Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making; Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. Continuity and change.
  • India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.
  • India and South Asia: Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects; South Asia as a Free Trade Area; India’s “Look East” policy; Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.
Paper – I Administrative Theory

I. Meaning, Scope and Significance of Public Administration. Evolution of Pubic Administration and its present status. Public Administration as an Art, Science or Craft. Approaches to the study of Public Administration i.e. Behavioural, Structural Functional Mechanical, Historical, Legal and Post Behavioural. Comparative Public Administration: Meaning, nature and scope.

II. Theories of Organization:- Scientific management (F. W. Taylorand the Scientific Management Movement). Classical Theory (Henry Fayol, Urwick & Gullick), Bureaucratic Theory (Max Weber) Human Relations Theory (Elton Mayo and others).

III. Principles of Organization: Hierarchy, Unity of Command span of control, Authority and Responsibility, Coordination, Supervision, Centralization and Decentralization, Delegation.

IV. Structure of Public Organizations: Chief Executive, Topologies of Chief Executive and their functions. Forms of Public ‘Organizations: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and commission. Line, Staff and Auxiliary Agencies.

V. Administrative Behaviour: Decision Making with special reference to Herbert Simon. Theories of Leadership. Communication, Morale, Motivation (Maslow and Herzberg). Behavioural Approach (Chester Bernard).

VI. Public Policy:- Relevance of Public Policy Making in Public Administration. Process of Policy making and its implementation. Models of Policy making.

VII. Accountability and control: Concepts of accountability and control. Legislative, Executive and judicial control over Administration. Citizen and Administration. People participation. Administrative corruption, Redressal of citizens grievance, Lokpal & Lokyakutas.

VIII. Administrative Law: Meaning, Significance and growth of administrative law. Delegated legislation, Rule of Law, Liability of Administration in Contracts and Torts. Administrative Discretion and judicial control. Principles of Natural Justice, Judicial review of Administrative action.

IX. Personnel Administrative: Objectives of personnel administration. Importance of Human Resource Development. Recruitment, training and career development, Performance Appraisal, Promotions. Discipline, Employer-employee relations. Integrity and code of conduct. Grievance redressal mechanism. Neutrality and Anonymity.

XI. Administrative Reforms: Meaning, process and obstacles. Techniques of administrative improvement: O & M, work study, work measurement. Role of Information Technology in administrative improvement E-Governance.

XII. Comparative and Development Administration: Meaning nature and scope of Comparative public administration. Models of Comparative Public Administration: Bureaucratic and Ecological (contribution of Fred Riggs). The concept, scope and significance of development Administration, Political, Socio-cultural context development administration. Concept of sustainable development and concept of Good Governance.

Paper – II Indian Administration

I. Evolution of Indian Administration:- Kautilya, Mugal Period, British and Modern Periods.

II. Constitutional frame work:- Parliamentary Democracy, Federalism, Socialism, Secularism. Human Rights and National Human Rights Commission.

III. Structure of Union Government and Administration:- President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Cabinet Committees. Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Ministers Office, Central Secretariat, Ministries and Departments Boards and Commissions, Field Organizations.

IV. Centre-State Relations:- Legislative, Administrative and Financial Relations.

V. Law and Order administration:- Role of Central and State agencies in Maintenance of Law and order.

VI. Public Enterprises:- Types of Public Enterprises, Contribution of Public Sector to the Indian economy. Management of Public enterprises in India:- Composition, powers, functions and types of Board of Public Enterprises. Accountability and control of public enterprises:- Parliamentary, Ministerial and Audit Controls. Changing role of the public sector in the context of liberalization.

VII. Control of Public Expenditure:- Parliamentary Control Role of Finance Ministry, Comptroller and Auditor General.

VIII. Public Services: All India Services, constitutional position. Role and Functions of all India services. Union Public Services Commission. State services and the state public service commissions. Training of All India services. Constitutional protection available to civil services.

IX. Administrative Reforms:- Reforms since independence since independence. Reports of Administrative Reforms Commissions Problems of Implementation

X. Machinery for Planning:- Role, composition and review of functions of the planning commission. Role of National Development Council. Process of plan formulation at Union and state levels. Decentralized planning.

XI. Welfare Administration:- Administration for the welfare of weaker sections with special reference to SC’s STs Women and children.

XII. Major issues in Indian Administration:- Relationship between political and permanent executives, integrity in administration. Values in public service and administrative culture. Development and environmental issues. Right to information.

XIII. Local Government:- Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Government. Structure, functions and Finances of Local bodies. Main features of 73rd & 74th constitutional Amendments. Major rural and urban development programmes and their management.

XIV. District Administration:- Role and importance of district administration. Changing Role of District Collector/Deputy Commissioner. Land and Revenue Administration. Relationship of District administration with functional departments at district level. District rural development agency.

XV. State Government and Administration:- Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers. Chief Secretary, State Secretariat. Directorates.

Paper – I

I. Economic choice, consumer behaviour, producer behaviour and market forms.

II. Full employment and says law, under-employment equilibrium, Keynes theory of employment and income determination, critique of Keynesian theory.

III. Functions of money, measurement of price level changes, money and real balances, monetary standards, Quantity Theory of Money. The money multiplier. Theories of determination of interest rate. Theories of inflation and methods to control inflation. Goals and instruments of monetary management in closed and open economies.

IV. Role of public finance in the developing economies. Fiscal economics: an overview of allocation, distribution and stabilization functions. Market failure, public goods and externalities. Principles of taxation, theories and measures of tax incidence, burden of public debt, management of public debt. Pure theory of public expenditure. Types of budget deficit.

V. International trade: tariffs, forms of protection, the rate of exchange, balance of payments. Aid versus trade controversy. WTO regime: structure, rationale, objectives, strategies, policies and global pattern of MNC’s activities. Critical assessment of the stabilization programmes of the international institutions i.e. IMF, IBRD and the World Bank. International trade and environmental issues.

VI. Economics growth, development and sustainable economy. Welfare indicators and measures of growth. Human development indices, the Basic Needs Approach. Poverty-development and environment nexus. Structural change and economic development. Trade off between equity and growth.

VII. Planning and market mechanism. Relation between state planning and growth, changing roles of market and plans in growth and economic policy. State intervention and privatization debate. Decentralized planning and peoples participation.

Paper – II

I. Indian economy in the post independent era: pattern, trend and factors determining national and per capita income in India, absolute and relative poverty in India. Factors determining employment in India. Relation between income-poverty and employment. Poverty eradication and social welfare programmes and their performance. Impact of economic reforms on poverty and employment in the Indian economy.

II. Agriculture in India : Agriculture Policy, size of agricultural holdings and efficiency, Green Revolution and technological changes, agricultural prices and terms of trade, agricultural prices and production, land reforms, current problems and issues of Indian agriculture. WTO agreement on agriculture (AOA) and its implications for India. Relationship between agriculture and industry.

III. Industry: process, rationale, objectives strategies and policies in the Indian context. Employment implications of industrialization, Appropriate industrial technology for India. Phases of industrial growth and changes in industrial structure in India. Public sector performance in India. The concept of joint sector. Foreign collaborations and multinationals in India. Debate on disinvestment of public sector undertakings. Large versus small scale industry debate in India. Impact of New Industrial Policy on Indian industry.

IV. Money and Banking: the monetary institutions of India, factors determining demand for and supply of money, techniques of money supply regulation under open economy.Functioning of money market in India. Indian capital market. Financial sector reforms and its impact.

V. Foreign trade of India: growth, pattern and direction. Import substitution versus export promotion policies. India’s external borrowings: the debt problem, impact of external debt on Indian economy. Balance of payment situation in India. Integration of Indian economy with the world economy. Implications of Trade related Intellectual Property Right (TRIPS) and Trade related investment measures (TRIMS) for India. External sector reforms in the Indian economy, challenges prospects and opportunities.

VI. Public Finance: Nature and extent of deficits in the central and state budgets. Policy measures to correct fiscal imbalances in India. Growth of public debt in India. Issues relating to growth and structure of public expenditure in India. Savings and inflationary finance. Federal Finance in India. Fiscal reforms and it’s budgetary implications.

VII. Economic planning in India: Objectives, strategy, experience and problems. Savings and investment rates, trends and problems. Growth and structure of the economy of Himachal Pradesh-Problems and Constraints.

Paper – I

I. Biology and diversity of lower plants or Cryptogams [(Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes], Microbes/Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Palaeobotany: Algae and Fungi: Classification, Distribution in West Himalayas and India, Economic importance, Structure and Reproduction of algae and fungi. Life histories of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Chara, Vaucheria, Dictyota, Batrachospermum, Synchytrium, Pythium, Phytophthora, Albugo, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillum, Morchella, Ustilago, Puccinia, Agaricus and Alternaria. Comparison between algae and fungi. Lichens: General account of lichens and their economic importance. Microbes/Microbiology: Structure, Classification, Reproduction, Physiology and Mode of infection of Viruses and Bacteria. Role of microbes in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control. Plant Pathology: Symptoms, mode of infection and control of important fungal, bacterial and viral diseases with special reference to diseases common in Himachal Pradesh. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Bryophytes and Pteridophytes: Classification, Distribution in West Himalayas and India, Economic importance, Structure and Reproduction of bryophytes and pteridophytes. Evolution of gametophyte and sporophyte in Bryophytes. Evolution of stelar system, Apogamy, Apospory, Heterospory and Seed habit in Pteridophytes. Life histories of Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia, Porella, Anthoceros, Sphagnum, Funaria, Polytrichum, Psilotum, Selaginella, Equisetum, Adiantum and Marsilea. Comparison among Archegoniatae. Palaeobotany: Introduction to palaeobotany, some basic principles and techniques. Short account of fossil algae, Naiadita, Rhynia, Asteroxylon, Lyginopteris and Pentoxylon.

II. Biology and diversity of Phanerogams or Spermatophytes (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms): Comparison among Tracheophytes. Distribution of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in West Himalayas and India. Life histories of Cycas, Pinus and Gnetum. Morphology and Anatomy: Tissues and Tissue systems. Meristems. Morphology and anatomy of root, stem and leaf. Structure of Vascular Cambium and its role in wood and bark formation. Normal and anomalous secondary growth (Dracaena, Tinospora, Boerrhavia and Nyctanthes). Structure of wood and bark. Embryology: Structure of anther and ovule. Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination. Fertilization and Development of Seed. Development and function of Endosperm. Patterns of Embryo development. Polyembryony. Apomixis. Applications of Palynology in angiosperms. Taxonomy: Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification. Modern Trends in Taxonomy. Classification of Gymnosperms. Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm classification. Salient features of the following families Cycadaceae, Pinaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Ephedraceae, Gnetaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Rosaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae), Liliaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae (Graminae).

III. Plant Resources Utilization, Economic and Ethno Botany, Plant Breeding and Biostatistics: Plants as sources of Food, Fibers, Wood/Timber, Drugs, Oils, Latex/Rubber, Paper, Starch, Beverages, Spices and Condiments, Gums and Resins, Tannins and Dyes, Insecticides. Ornamental plants. Biomass as a source of energy. Energy plantations. Importance of Ethno-botany in Indian context. Underexploited/Underutilized Plants [Winged or Goa Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus); Jojoba or Hohoba (Simmondisa chinensis), Guayule or Wuyule (Parthenium argentatum), Leucaena or Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) and Triticale (Triticosecale)]. A general account of Edible Wild Plants. Origin of cultivated plants. Centers of origin. Methods and Modes of reproduction in relation to breeding self pollinated, cross pollinated, vegetatively propagated and apomictic plants. Introduction, Selection and Hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. A general account of Inbreeding depression and Heterosis; Exploitation of Hybrid Vigour; Production of Hybrids, Composites and Synthetics. Uses of genetic engineering, polyploidy, mutations and apomixes in plant breeding and crop improvement. Role of cell and tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plant breeding techniques in wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton only. Biostatistics: Mean, Median, Standard deviation and Coefficient of variation.

Paper – II

I. Environmental Biology (Plant Ecology, Plant geography, Principles of Biodiversity and Conservation): Scope of Ecology. Biotic and abiotic components. Plant Communities. Plant Succession. Ecological adaptations. Biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation and Forest Types of India with particular reference to Himachal Pradesh. Deforestation, Aforestation and Social forestry. Soil erosion, wastelands and reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control including phytoremediation. Bioindicators. Global warming. Concepts of Biosphere, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, in situ and ex situ Conservation, Endemism and Hot spots. Plant genetic resources and their importance. Factors contributing to the loss of forest biodiversity. IUCN categories of Threat and Red Data Books. Role of Botanical gardens and Herbaria. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Sovereign rights and Intellectual Property Rights.

II. lant Physiology and Biochemistry: Absorption and Conduction of Water. Mineral Absorption. Role of elements and mineral deficiencies. Transpiration. Mechanisms of stomatal movements. Respiration. Photorespiration. Photosynthesis. Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants. Nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Plant Growth and Movements. Photoperiodism and Vernalization. Plant Hormones. Dormancy and germination of seeds. Photomorphogenesis. Stress physiology with respect to temperature, water and salinity stress. Physiology of flowering. Fruit ripening. Chemical foundations of biology: Physico-chemical properties of water, pH, acids, bases, buffers, types of bonds and their importance, free energy, resonance and isomerisation. Structure and functions of Carbohydrates, Lipids/Fats, Amino acids, Peptides, Proteins and Nucleic acids.

III. Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: Techniques of cell biology, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell theory. Cell as a unit of structure and function, ultra-structure of cell and its various organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic, reticulum, ribosomes, endosomes, vacuoles, lysosomes, peroxysomes). Extracellular matrix or ECM. Cell wall and plasma membrane. Nucleus, Nucleolus, Nuclear pore complex (NPC), Chromatin and Nucleosome. Nucleic acids − their structure, reproduction and role in protein biosynthesis. DNA polymorphism. The physical and chemical structure of chromosomes. Mitosis and Meiosis. Molecular control involving check points in cell division cycle. Structural and Numerical changes in chromosomes. Structure, behaviour and significance of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes. Pre and Post Mendelian concept of Genetics. Laws of inheritance. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Gene and Allele concepts. Linkage, Crossing over and Gene mapping. Genetic Code. Regulation of gene expression. Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance. Sex determination. Biochemical and molecular basis of Mutations. Extra chromosomal / Cytoplasmic inheritance. Evidences, Mechanisms and Theories of organic evolution. Micropropagation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Genetic engineering. Methods of gene transfer and transgenic crops. Development and use of molecular markers. Fermentation technology. Biofertilizers.