The two most important issues facing humanity in the 21st century are climate change and food insecurity. The world’s southern continent is reportedly experiencing severe drought and climate change which adversely impacts agricultural production and farmer’s income.
A viable option:
A viable option, climate smart agriculture (CSA) provides a holistic framework. The food and agriculture organisation said in 2019” climate smart agriculture is an approach for transforming food and agriculture system to support sustainable development and safeguard food security under climate change.
CSA comprises three pillars or objectives:
- Sustainably increase agricultural income and production.
- Adapt and built resilience to climate change.
- Remove or reduce greenhouse gases emission.
Dimensions of climate smart practices include:
Water smart, weather smart, energy smart, carbon smart practices. They improve productivity, deal with land degradation and improve soil health.
The future impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity could be substantial. In India crop yield declined to climate change between 2010 and 2019, it could be as high as 9%.
In order to combat the climate change and sustainably boost the agricultural output, a radical reform of agricultural industry is required.
Improvement in agroforestry, sustainable water management and precision agriculture are all concrete examples of CSA ideas in action.
CSA promotes crop diversification, increase water efficiency.
The importance of CSA lies in its ability to increase agricultural output while maintain ecological stability.
The Paris agreement goal of limiting global warming by reducing greenhouse gases is tied directly to the success of CSA.
CSA in India:
A majority of Indian farmers are small or marginal. Therefore, CSA can play a significant role in helping them to increase their profit.
The National adaptation fund for climate change, National innovation on climate resilient agriculture, soil health mission, PM kisan Sanchay yojana, Parampragt Krishi Vikas yojana are few examples of government initiative in India focusing on CSA.
Various public and private entities such as farmers-producer organisations and NGOs are working towards adaption of CSA,