HAS Syllabus

HAS Prelims

The general studies syllabus is a mixture of the current affairs and the static GK topics. The HPPSC syllabus for the prelims exam is mentioned in the official notification and the topics are as follows

  • History, geography, political, art & culture and socio-economic development of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Currents events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian national movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-physical, social, economic geography of India and the world.
  • Indian polity and governance –Constitution, political system, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and social development –sustainable development poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives, etc.  
  • General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change –that do not require subject specialization 
  • General Science.

The aptitude test was introduced after the inclusion of CSAT paper in the IAS Exam. The aptitude paper tests the objective orientation of the candidates. The topics of the syllabus are as follows.

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability 
  • Decision making and problem-solving
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc. (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. –Class X level).
  • English Language comprehension skills (Class X level)

HAS Mains Syllabus

The objective of this paper is to test the understanding of the English language and its usage. The candidate is expected to be well-versed with the usage of English. The topics are as follows

English Grammar20
Usage and vocabulary20
English Composition Letter / Application / Report / Note writing20
Comprehension of unseen passages20
Precis Writing20
  • The topics of the Hindi paper are as follows
  • Translation of an English passage into Hindi.
  • Translation of Hindi passage into English.
  • Explanation of Hindi passage in Prose and Poetry in the same language.
  • Composition(Idioms, corrections etc.)  

Essay paper is designed to test the knowledge and awareness of the candidate regarding the subject and the society as a whole. The topics can be included from the following areas

  • current affairs
  • socio-political issues
  • socio-economic issues
  • aspects of culture and history
  • Reflective topics will be given to test the candidates’ understanding of these issues and their flair for expressing themselves in the English or in the Hindi language. 

The candidates are required to attempt 2 Essays, choosing one each from Section A and B in about 900 words each.


Sub Unit-1

  • Historical perspective of Indian Cultural heritage:
  • Literature and Art forms from ancient times to 1947(Major structural and rock-cut temple architecture, sculptural art and major schools of paintings).
  • Modern Indian history from the mid-18th century to 1980.
  • Freedom Struggle: its various stages and the role of eminent personalities from different parts of India.

Sub Unit-2

  • Industrial Revolution and the emergence of Capitalism.
  • Fascist Ideology and its global implications.
  • World Wars and boundary settlements after the First and the Second World Wars.
  • Concept of Decolonization, Nationalism and Socialism, Globalization and concept of Modernity.

Sub Unit-3

  • Emergence and growth of early medieval states: Kangra, Kullu and Chamba. The Hill States and their relations with the Mughals and the Sikhs.
  • Gorkha invasion- its nature and consequences, Treaty of Segauli.
  • The Hill States under Colonial power: Political and Administrative History. Grants, Sanads and territorial aggression.
  • Social and Economic conditions under the colonial period with special reference to social practices of Beth, Begar and Reet.
  • Establishment of British Cantonments.
  • National Movement with special reference to Praja Mandal movements in Himachal Pradesh, 1848-1948.
  • Five Year Plans and vision for the developed Hill State.
  • Survey of artistic and cultural Heritage(Temples, Buddhist Monasteries and Paintings). 


Sub Unit-1

  • Introduction to Disasters: Concepts, definitions, disaster classifications including natural and man-made disasters.
  • Social and Environmental impacts of disasters.
  • Disaster profile of the country.
  • Approaches to Disaster Risk Reductions.
  • Disaster management models. Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders including community, Concept of first responders.
  • Interrelationship of disaster and development.
  • Disaster management in India including the Disaster Management Act 2005, National and state policies, Plans and institutional mechanism in the country.

Sub Unit-2

  • Geographical Introduction to India, India as a unit of Geographical Study.
  • Aspects of the Physical Geography of India – Structure and Relief, Climate, Soils and Vegetation, Geomorphic set up (Mountain Ranges and Rivers and other Water Bodies).
  • Human Aspects – Population distribution, Urban Population, Internal Migration.
  • Language and Literacy, Villages and Towns in India.
  • Settlements, Industry and Transport.

Sub Unit-3

  • Geography of Himachal Pradesh: Relief, Drainage, Vegetation cover and types.
  • Climate and climatic zones in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Geographical Regions of Himachal Pradesh (Shiwalik, Doons and Low Valleys, Outer Valleys of Sub Himalaya, Mid Hill Tracts of High Himalaya, High hills and Valleys and Inner Zones).
  • Human Aspects: Quantitative, Qualitative and Temporal characteristics of Population, Urbanisation pattern.
  • Policies: Forest, Industrial and Tourism Policies, Growth of Industrial areas and types of Industries in Himachal, Employment generation and potential, Scope of future Industrialization, Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Profile of Himachal Pradesh. 


Sub Unit-3

  • Salient features of Indian Society, Unity in Diversity.
  • Social Institutions: Family, Marriage, Kinship, Religion and Social stratification in India.
  • Women empowerment and social justice: Policies for women Empowerment in India, Laws for protection of women, women security and safety initiatives in India.
  • Child Rights and Right to Education.
  • Rights of differently-able persons and quality of life for them.

Sub Unit-2

  • Core Values in public service/governance.
  • Philosophical basis of public service/governance and Integrity, Professionalism, Accountability.
  • Objectivity and transparency, information sharing and right to information, codes of conduct, work culture, challenges of corruption and political pressures.
  • Gandhian Thought: Truth and Non-violence, Satyagraha, Ends and Means, Religion and Politics.

Sub Unit-3

  • Society and Culture in Himachal Pradesh: Culture, customs, fairs and festivals, and religious beliefs and practices, recreation and amusement.
  • Tribes of Himachal Pradesh: their historical, social, cultural, economic and legal aspects.
  • Family, marriage, kinship, and caste system in Himachal Pradesh.


Sub Unit-1

  • Constitution of India: Historical underpinning, evolution, salient features.
  • Significant provisions including Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Amending process and important Constitutional Amendments and theory of basic structure.

Sub Unit-2

  • Parliament and State legislatures, Structure, Organization and functioning of the Union and State Executive and the Judiciary.
  • Functions and responsibilities of Union and States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up-to local level and challenges therein. •Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointments to various constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various constitutional bodies in India. SUB UNIT-3•Reorganization and politics of statehood.
  • Development of political parties, major Political parties and their support base and performance in the Assembly and Parliamentary elections in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Politics of sub-regionalism and pressure groups in the State.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-Judicial bodies in Himachal Pradesh. 


Sub Unit-1

  • Institutional framework, Policies and Interventions for development in various sectors in India.
  • Governance, Good governance, Citizen Charters, effective public service delivery, transparency, accountability and ethics in governance in India.
  • District Administration: Changing role of 
  • Deputy Commissioner.
  • Local self-government in urban and rural areas in India.

Sub Unit-2

  • Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs),
  • Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Civil Society in Governance in India.
  • Bodies constituted, Policies, Programmes and Schemes for welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes,
  • Women, Minorities, Backward classes, Differently-abled persons, and children in India.
  • Issues relating to quality of life: livelihood, poverty, hunger, disease and social inclusiveness.

Sub Unit-3

  • Governance in Himachal Pradesh
  • The Himachal Pradesh Public Service Guarantee Act 2011;
  • Right to Information Act, 2005 and rules made thereunder by the Himachal Pradesh Government.
  • Administrative reforms for effective public service delivery in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Implementation of 73rd& 74th Constitutional amendments in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Issues and Challenges. Programmes and policies for the welfare of differently-abled persons, women and children in Himachal Pradesh.


Sub Unit-1

  • Bilateral, Regional and Global groupings and agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests.
  • India’s look east policy.
  • India’s relations with United States of America (U.S.A.), Russia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Nepal, Maldives and Middle East Countries. 

Sub Unit-2

  • Effects of the policies of developed and developing countries on India’s interest, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important international Institutions, agencies and fora, their structure and mandate.

Sub Unit-3

  • Cyber crime and drug menace – mechanism to detect and control it in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Enactments made by Himachal Pradesh Government to protect and promote the interests of agrarian society.
  • Various policies framed by the Government of Himachal Pradesh for the socioeconomic development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of the State.
  • Tribal welfare administration, Tribal sub-plan and Single line administration in Himachal Pradesh.


Sub Unit-1

  • Characteristics of Indian Economy
  • Demographic Profile, Demographic Dividend and Population Policy.
  • Sectoral Composition with respect to contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Employment.
  • Poverty and Inequality, Unemployment, Inflation in India.
  • Industrial Growth in India.
  • Regulatory framework for money and banking: Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Commercial banks and Regional Rural Banks.
  • Monetary policy, Foreign exchange, Balance of Payment Scenario.
  • Foreign Trade: Policy, Composition and Direction, Impact of Liberalization / Privatization and Globalization.

Sub Unit-2

  • Economic Planning in India.
  • Five Year Plans: strategies and outcomes, Public / Private / Joint Sectors.
  • Fiscal Policy, Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003, Debt and Investment in India: Current Status, Growth and Development experience including Natural Resource Management.
  • Sustainable development and Inclusive growth.
  • Measurement of economic development: Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), Millennium Development Goals, Human Development Index (HDI) / Gender Development Index (GDI) / Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).
  • Latest / Current Development Schemes / Initiatives / Institutional Changes (e.g. Swach Bharat Mission, Make in India, Digital India, Skill India, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Ayog etc.).
  • International Financial and Economic Organizations: International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Organization for  
  • Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS).

Sub Unit-3

Economy of Himachal Pradesh

  • Demographic profile and Human resource, Sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP).
  • Diversification in Agriculture and allied activities, Land tenure and size of landholdings.
  • Industrialization in the state.
  • Skilled / Unskilled labour.
  • Revenue generation with special reference to hydro potential, tourism, flora and fauna.
  • Cottage and Small Scale Industries.
  • Tax base, Pros and Cons of Special Category status.
  • Appraisal of education, Health, Physical and Financial Infrastructure Development.


Sub Unit-1

  • Applications of space technology in natural resources, development and communications.
  • Important missions and programmes of Department of Space and Indian Space Research Organization.
  • Historical evolution of Indian Space Programme. Lunar, interplanetary and Earth Observation Missions.
  • Remote Sensing and Communication satellites. Applications of Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) for natural resources monitoring and applications benefiting the common man.

Sub Unit-2

  • Developments in energy sectors such as Hydropower, non-conventional sources of energy and nuclear energy including policies, programmes and research base in the country.
  • Concepts of non-conventional, renewable, clean and environment-friendly energy sources. Role of energy in sustainable development.

Sub Unit-3

  • Modern and emerging technologies and initiatives in the State of Himachal Pradesh including biotechnology policy, research, vision, scope and applications for developing horticulture, medicinal and aromatic plants resources of the State.
  • IT policy of Himachal Pradesh and its role in governance, concept of Himachal State Wide Area Network (HIMSWAN), State plans of e-governance, the concept of Lok Mitra Kendra and Aryabhatta Geo-Informatics Space Application Centre (AGISAC).
  • State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Endangered and threatened species of Himachal Pradesh. Factors responsible for Biodiversity decline in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Relevance and role of Intellectual Property Rights, Geographical Indications and Traditional wisdom and knowledge in the sustainable development of the State. 


Sub Unit-1

  • Issues, concerns, policies, programmes, conventions, treaties and missions aimed at environment protection, and dealing with the problem of climate change.
  • State of environment reports. Environment protection and pollution control Act and rules.
  • Environment Impact Assessment.
  • National Action plans on Climate Change.
  • Himalayan ecology, biosphere reserve, Science and economics of climate change.
  • Social and ethical issues in the use of Biotechnology.

Sub Unit-2

  • Latest developments in science and technology for harnessing agriculture, horticulture, medicinal and herbal resources in the country. 
  • National mission for sustainable agriculture, the mission for integrated development of horticulture.
  • Concept of organic farming, seed certification, rainwater harvesting, techniques of irrigation and soil conservations and soil health cards.

Sub Unit-3

  • Tourism policy, potential and initiative in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Types of tourism: religious, adventure, heritage, important tourist destinations in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Social, Economic and Cultural implications of Tourism. 
  • Concept of Eco-Tourism and green tourism and their role in the sustainable development of the State.
  • Environmental concerns of the tourism industry, both positive and negative effects including climate change with reference to Himachal Pradesh.

Optional Subjects

Paper – I Administrative Theory

I. Meaning, Scope and Significance of Public Administration. Evolution of Pubic Administration and its present status. Public Administration as an Art, Science or Craft. Approaches to the study of Public Administration i.e. Behavioural, Structural Functional Mechanical, Historical, Legal and Post Behavioural. Comparative Public Administration: Meaning, nature and scope.

II. Theories of Organization:- Scientific management (F. W. Taylorand the Scientific Management Movement). Classical Theory (Henry Fayol, Urwick & Gullick), Bureaucratic Theory (Max Weber) Human Relations Theory (Elton Mayo and others).

III. Principles of Organization: Hierarchy, Unity of Command span of control, Authority and Responsibility, Coordination, Supervision, Centralization and Decentralization, Delegation.

IV. Structure of Public Organizations: Chief Executive, Topologies of Chief Executive and their functions. Forms of Public ‘Organizations: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and commission. Line, Staff and Auxiliary Agencies.

V. Administrative Behaviour: Decision Making with special reference to Herbert Simon. Theories of Leadership. Communication, Morale, Motivation (Maslow and Herzberg). Behavioural Approach (Chester Bernard).

VI. Public Policy:- Relevance of Public Policy Making in Public Administration. Process of Policy making and its implementation. Models of Policy making.

VII. Accountability and control: Concepts of accountability and control. Legislative, Executive and judicial control over Administration. Citizen and Administration. People participation. Administrative corruption, Redressal of citizens grievance, Lokpal & Lokyakutas.

VIII. Administrative Law: Meaning, Significance and growth of administrative law. Delegated legislation, Rule of Law, Liability of Administration in Contracts and Torts. Administrative Discretion and judicial control. Principles of Natural Justice, Judicial review of Administrative action.

IX. Personnel Administrative: Objectives of personnel administration. Importance of Human Resource Development. Recruitment, training and career development, Performance Appraisal, Promotions. Discipline, Employer-employee relations. Integrity and code of conduct. Grievance redressal mechanism. Neutrality and Anonymity.

XI. Administrative Reforms: Meaning, process and obstacles. Techniques of administrative improvement: O & M, work study, work measurement. Role of Information Technology in administrative improvement E-Governance.

XII. Comparative and Development Administration: Meaning nature and scope of Comparative public administration. Models of Comparative Public Administration: Bureaucratic and Ecological (contribution of Fred Riggs). The concept, scope and significance of development Administration, Political, Socio-cultural context development administration. Concept of sustainable development and concept of Good Governance.

Paper – II Indian Administration

I. Evolution of Indian Administration:- Kautilya, Mugal Period, British and Modern Periods.

II. Constitutional frame work:- Parliamentary Democracy, Federalism, Socialism, Secularism. Human Rights and National Human Rights Commission.

III. Structure of Union Government and Administration:- President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Cabinet Committees. Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Ministers Office, Central Secretariat, Ministries and Departments Boards and Commissions, Field Organizations.

IV. Centre-State Relations:- Legislative, Administrative and Financial Relations.

V. Law and Order administration:- Role of Central and State agencies in Maintenance of Law and order.

VI. Public Enterprises:- Types of Public Enterprises, Contribution of Public Sector to the Indian economy. Management of Public enterprises in India:- Composition, powers, functions and types of Board of Public Enterprises. Accountability and control of public enterprises:- Parliamentary, Ministerial and Audit Controls. Changing role of the public sector in the context of liberalization.

VII. Control of Public Expenditure:- Parliamentary Control Role of Finance Ministry, Comptroller and Auditor General.

VIII. Public Services: All India Services, constitutional position. Role and Functions of all India services. Union Public Services Commission. State services and the state public service commissions. Training of All India services. Constitutional protection available to civil services.

IX. Administrative Reforms:- Reforms since independence since independence. Reports of Administrative Reforms Commissions Problems of Implementation

X. Machinery for Planning:- Role, composition and review of functions of the planning commission. Role of National Development Council. Process of plan formulation at Union and state levels. Decentralized planning.

XI. Welfare Administration:- Administration for the welfare of weaker sections with special reference to SC’s STs Women and children.

XII. Major issues in Indian Administration:- Relationship between political and permanent executives, integrity in administration. Values in public service and administrative culture. Development and environmental issues. Right to information.

XIII. Local Government:- Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Government. Structure, functions and Finances of Local bodies. Main features of 73rd & 74th constitutional Amendments. Major rural and urban development programmes and their management.

XIV. District Administration:- Role and importance of district administration. Changing Role of District Collector/Deputy Commissioner. Land and Revenue Administration. Relationship of District administration with functional departments at district level. District rural development agency.

XV. State Government and Administration:- Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers. Chief Secretary, State Secretariat. Directorates.

Paper – I

I. Economic choice, consumer behaviour, producer behaviour and market forms.

II. Full employment and says law, under-employment equilibrium, Keynes theory of employment and income determination, critique of Keynesian theory.

III. Functions of money, measurement of price level changes, money and real balances, monetary standards, Quantity Theory of Money. The money multiplier. Theories of determination of interest rate. Theories of inflation and methods to control inflation. Goals and instruments of monetary management in closed and open economies.

IV. Role of public finance in the developing economies. Fiscal economics: an overview of allocation, distribution and stabilization functions. Market failure, public goods and externalities. Principles of taxation, theories and measures of tax incidence, burden of public debt, management of public debt. Pure theory of public expenditure. Types of budget deficit.

V. International trade: tariffs, forms of protection, the rate of exchange, balance of payments. Aid versus trade controversy. WTO regime: structure, rationale, objectives, strategies, policies and global pattern of MNC’s activities. Critical assessment of the stabilization programmes of the international institutions i.e. IMF, IBRD and the World Bank. International trade and environmental issues.

VI. Economics growth, development and sustainable economy. Welfare indicators and measures of growth. Human development indices, the Basic Needs Approach. Poverty-development and environment nexus. Structural change and economic development. Trade off between equity and growth.

VII. Planning and market mechanism. Relation between state planning and growth, changing roles of market and plans in growth and economic policy. State intervention and privatization debate. Decentralized planning and peoples participation.

Paper – II

I. Indian economy in the post independent era: pattern, trend and factors determining national and per capita income in India, absolute and relative poverty in India. Factors determining employment in India. Relation between income-poverty and employment. Poverty eradication and social welfare programmes and their performance. Impact of economic reforms on poverty and employment in the Indian economy.

II. Agriculture in India : Agriculture Policy, size of agricultural holdings and efficiency, Green Revolution and technological changes, agricultural prices and terms of trade, agricultural prices and production, land reforms, current problems and issues of Indian agriculture. WTO agreement on agriculture (AOA) and its implications for India. Relationship between agriculture and industry.

III. Industry: process, rationale, objectives strategies and policies in the Indian context. Employment implications of industrialization, Appropriate industrial technology for India. Phases of industrial growth and changes in industrial structure in India. Public sector performance in India. The concept of joint sector. Foreign collaborations and multinationals in India. Debate on disinvestment of public sector undertakings. Large versus small scale industry debate in India. Impact of New Industrial Policy on Indian industry.

IV. Money and Banking: the monetary institutions of India, factors determining demand for and supply of money, techniques of money supply regulation under open economy.Functioning of money market in India. Indian capital market. Financial sector reforms and its impact.

V. Foreign trade of India: growth, pattern and direction. Import substitution versus export promotion policies. India’s external borrowings: the debt problem, impact of external debt on Indian economy. Balance of payment situation in India. Integration of Indian economy with the world economy. Implications of Trade related Intellectual Property Right (TRIPS) and Trade related investment measures (TRIMS) for India. External sector reforms in the Indian economy, challenges prospects and opportunities.

VI. Public Finance: Nature and extent of deficits in the central and state budgets. Policy measures to correct fiscal imbalances in India. Growth of public debt in India. Issues relating to growth and structure of public expenditure in India. Savings and inflationary finance. Federal Finance in India. Fiscal reforms and it’s budgetary implications.

VII. Economic planning in India: Objectives, strategy, experience and problems. Savings and investment rates, trends and problems. Growth and structure of the economy of Himachal Pradesh-Problems and Constraints.

Paper – I

I. Biology and diversity of lower plants or Cryptogams [(Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes], Microbes/Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Palaeobotany: Algae and Fungi: Classification, Distribution in West Himalayas and India, Economic importance, Structure and Reproduction of algae and fungi. Life histories of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Chara, Vaucheria, Dictyota, Batrachospermum, Synchytrium, Pythium, Phytophthora, Albugo, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillum, Morchella, Ustilago, Puccinia, Agaricus and Alternaria. Comparison between algae and fungi. Lichens: General account of lichens and their economic importance. Microbes/Microbiology: Structure, Classification, Reproduction, Physiology and Mode of infection of Viruses and Bacteria. Role of microbes in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control. Plant Pathology: Symptoms, mode of infection and control of important fungal, bacterial and viral diseases with special reference to diseases common in Himachal Pradesh. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Bryophytes and Pteridophytes: Classification, Distribution in West Himalayas and India, Economic importance, Structure and Reproduction of bryophytes and pteridophytes. Evolution of gametophyte and sporophyte in Bryophytes. Evolution of stelar system, Apogamy, Apospory, Heterospory and Seed habit in Pteridophytes. Life histories of Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia, Porella, Anthoceros, Sphagnum, Funaria, Polytrichum, Psilotum, Selaginella, Equisetum, Adiantum and Marsilea. Comparison among Archegoniatae. Palaeobotany: Introduction to palaeobotany, some basic principles and techniques. Short account of fossil algae, Naiadita, Rhynia, Asteroxylon, Lyginopteris and Pentoxylon.

II. Biology and diversity of Phanerogams or Spermatophytes (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms): Comparison among Tracheophytes. Distribution of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in West Himalayas and India. Life histories of Cycas, Pinus and Gnetum. Morphology and Anatomy: Tissues and Tissue systems. Meristems. Morphology and anatomy of root, stem and leaf. Structure of Vascular Cambium and its role in wood and bark formation. Normal and anomalous secondary growth (Dracaena, Tinospora, Boerrhavia and Nyctanthes). Structure of wood and bark. Embryology: Structure of anther and ovule. Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination. Fertilization and Development of Seed. Development and function of Endosperm. Patterns of Embryo development. Polyembryony. Apomixis. Applications of Palynology in angiosperms. Taxonomy: Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification. Modern Trends in Taxonomy. Classification of Gymnosperms. Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm classification. Salient features of the following families Cycadaceae, Pinaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Ephedraceae, Gnetaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Rosaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae), Liliaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae (Graminae).

III. Plant Resources Utilization, Economic and Ethno Botany, Plant Breeding and Biostatistics: Plants as sources of Food, Fibers, Wood/Timber, Drugs, Oils, Latex/Rubber, Paper, Starch, Beverages, Spices and Condiments, Gums and Resins, Tannins and Dyes, Insecticides. Ornamental plants. Biomass as a source of energy. Energy plantations. Importance of Ethno-botany in Indian context. Underexploited/Underutilized Plants [Winged or Goa Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus); Jojoba or Hohoba (Simmondisa chinensis), Guayule or Wuyule (Parthenium argentatum), Leucaena or Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) and Triticale (Triticosecale)]. A general account of Edible Wild Plants. Origin of cultivated plants. Centers of origin. Methods and Modes of reproduction in relation to breeding self pollinated, cross pollinated, vegetatively propagated and apomictic plants. Introduction, Selection and Hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. A general account of Inbreeding depression and Heterosis; Exploitation of Hybrid Vigour; Production of Hybrids, Composites and Synthetics. Uses of genetic engineering, polyploidy, mutations and apomixes in plant breeding and crop improvement. Role of cell and tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plant breeding techniques in wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton only. Biostatistics: Mean, Median, Standard deviation and Coefficient of variation.

Paper – II

I. Environmental Biology (Plant Ecology, Plant geography, Principles of Biodiversity and Conservation): Scope of Ecology. Biotic and abiotic components. Plant Communities. Plant Succession. Ecological adaptations. Biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation and Forest Types of India with particular reference to Himachal Pradesh. Deforestation, Aforestation and Social forestry. Soil erosion, wastelands and reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control including phytoremediation. Bioindicators. Global warming. Concepts of Biosphere, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, in situ and ex situ Conservation, Endemism and Hot spots. Plant genetic resources and their importance. Factors contributing to the loss of forest biodiversity. IUCN categories of Threat and Red Data Books. Role of Botanical gardens and Herbaria. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Sovereign rights and Intellectual Property Rights.

II. lant Physiology and Biochemistry: Absorption and Conduction of Water. Mineral Absorption. Role of elements and mineral deficiencies. Transpiration. Mechanisms of stomatal movements. Respiration. Photorespiration. Photosynthesis. Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants. Nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Plant Growth and Movements. Photoperiodism and Vernalization. Plant Hormones. Dormancy and germination of seeds. Photomorphogenesis. Stress physiology with respect to temperature, water and salinity stress. Physiology of flowering. Fruit ripening. Chemical foundations of biology: Physico-chemical properties of water, pH, acids, bases, buffers, types of bonds and their importance, free energy, resonance and isomerisation. Structure and functions of Carbohydrates, Lipids/Fats, Amino acids, Peptides, Proteins and Nucleic acids.

III. Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: Techniques of cell biology, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell theory. Cell as a unit of structure and function, ultra-structure of cell and its various organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic, reticulum, ribosomes, endosomes, vacuoles, lysosomes, peroxysomes). Extracellular matrix or ECM. Cell wall and plasma membrane. Nucleus, Nucleolus, Nuclear pore complex (NPC), Chromatin and Nucleosome. Nucleic acids − their structure, reproduction and role in protein biosynthesis. DNA polymorphism. The physical and chemical structure of chromosomes. Mitosis and Meiosis. Molecular control involving check points in cell division cycle. Structural and Numerical changes in chromosomes. Structure, behaviour and significance of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes. Pre and Post Mendelian concept of Genetics. Laws of inheritance. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Gene and Allele concepts. Linkage, Crossing over and Gene mapping. Genetic Code. Regulation of gene expression. Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance. Sex determination. Biochemical and molecular basis of Mutations. Extra chromosomal / Cytoplasmic inheritance. Evidences, Mechanisms and Theories of organic evolution. Micropropagation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Genetic engineering. Methods of gene transfer and transgenic crops. Development and use of molecular markers. Fermentation technology. Biofertilizers.

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