The land of contention was under Ottoman Empire and later the British Empire. Several Islamic countries, including the Arab world, Türkiye, Pakistan etc have officially expressed hatred against Jews citing reference to religious scriptures.
The Jews as a micro minority of the world have been denied access to their historic homeland.
Arab resisted the homeland of Jews claiming the land as their own known as Palestine at the time.
Balfour Declaration: In 1917 UK expressed support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Violent resistance: Arab resistance to the Balfour declaration led to violence and further tension. After World War ii, in 1947 UN proposed a partition plan that would divide Palestine into separate Jewish state and Arab states. Jerusalem was proposed as an international city. The plan was accepted by Jewish leaders but rejected by Arab leaders, leading to violence. The basis of division of Palestine land was that as earlier 1000 years ago this land was an Israel Kingdom, but later Jewish were compelled to migrate from their homeland and whole land came under the control of Arab people.
In 1948 Israel declared its independence leading to war with neighbouring countries. The conflict resulted in displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians.
Rise of Hamas: The Israel- Hamas conflict in its current form can be traced back to late 1980s when the first Palestine uprising erupted.
Who is the Hamas: An Islamic organisation emerged during this period. It gained popularity as a resistance movement against Israel occupation and Fatah (The Palestine political faction).
Importantant places linked to Israel Palestine conflict:
Al Aqsa Mosque: One of the holiest structures in the Islamic faith known as Haram- al Sharif. It is part of old city of Jerusalem, a sacred place to Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
Sheikh Jarrah: located north of the city in East Jerusalem.
West Bank: Land locked territory in West Asia. It also contains significant section of western dead sea. It is sandwiched between Israel and Jordan.
Gaza Strip: located between Israel and Egypt. Israel occupied the strip after 1967.
Golan Heights: Is a strategic plateau captured from Syria in the 1967 war. Israel effectively annexed the territory in 1981.
In 2017 the USA officially recognised Jerusalem and Golan Heights as a part of Israel.